Bunions What Causes Them


Overview
Bunions
A bunion is an often painful enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe. If you have a bunion, you will notice a bump on your big toe joint. The big toe may turn in toward the second toe and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender. Bunions can come from a variety of causes, including diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or foot mechanics that place too much load on the ball of your foot. If untreated, bunions can worsen, leading to other serious complications, and even potentially require surgery. Early treatment is best, so if you?re suffering from bunions it?s smart to see a podiatrist for proper treatment and care.

Causes
Perhaps the most frequent cause of bunion development is the wearing of shoes with tight, pointed toes, or with high heels that shift all of your body's weight onto your toes and also jam your toes into your shoes' toe boxes. It's estimated that more than 50 percent of women have bunions caused by high-heel shoes, and that nine out of 10 people who develop bunions are women. Bunions can also develop on your little toes, in which case they are called bunionettes or tailor's bunions.
SymptomsThe initial symptom may be pain at the joint prominence when wearing certain shoes. The joint capsule may be tender at any stage. Later symptoms may include a painful, warm, red, cystic, movable, fluctuant swelling located medially (adventitial bursitis) and swellings and mild inflammation affecting the entire joint (osteoarthritic synovitis), which is more circumferential. With hallux limitus or rigidus, there is restriction of passive joint motion, tenderness at the dorsolateral aspect of the joint, and increased dorsiflexion of the distal phalanx.

Diagnosis
Your doctor can identify a bunion by examining your foot. Watching your big toe as you move it up and down will help your doctor determine if your range of motion is limited. Your doctor will also look for redness or swelling. After the physical exam, an X-ray of your foot can help your doctor identify the cause of the bunion and rate its severity.

Non Surgical Treatment
Getting rid of a Bunion is almost impossible without surgery. Foot and toe exercises can help. Foam pads can reduce the pressure on the joint. Ice packs and anti-inflammatory medication can help reduce swelling. The progress of a Bunion can be slowed or even halted, especially if it is caused by ill-fitting footwear. Of course the best course of action is to not wear pointy-toed high-heel shoes to begin with. But if you have worn improper footwear and now want to stop the progress of Bunions.
Bunions Hard Skin

Surgical Treatment
For patients who have arthritis of the big toe joint associated with a bunion deformity an osteotomy is not performed. The deformity is corrected through the joint either with a fusion of the joint or by removing a portion of the joint (an arthroplasty). Fusion of the big toe joint is an excellent operation since it corrects the deformity, prevents the bunion from returning and eliminates the arthritis simultaneously.
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Brenna Biedrzycki

Author:Brenna Biedrzycki
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